# Outcomes

Assets: Assets are measured in \$1000s of current USD.

Attendance rates: Attendance rates are for school attendance and given in percentage points.

Birthweight: Weight at birth, in kg.

Chest pain: The relative risk of answering “yes” to whether the person experienced chest pain, often a symptom of respiratory illness in the context of cookstoves. The relative risk is a ratio of the probability of the event occurring in the treatment group to the probability of the event occurring in the control group. A higher relative risk means a higher risk of experiencing the symptom. Risks above 1 mean the treatment increased the symptom; risks below 1 mean the treatment decreased the symptom. For example, if the relative risk is 0.5, that means the treatment group is 50% less likely to experience the symptom than the control group; if the relative risk is 2, that means the treatment group is twice as likely to experience the symptom. Read more on the difference between risks and rates.

Consumption: Consumption is measured in \$1000s of current USD.

Cough: The relative risk of answering “yes” to whether the person experienced coughing, often a symptom of respiratory illness in the context of cookstoves. The relative risk is a ratio of the probability of the event occurring in the treatment group to the probability of the event occurring in the control group. A higher relative risk means a higher risk of experiencing the symptom. Risks above 1 mean the treatment increased the symptom; risks below 1 mean the treatment decreased the symptom. For example, if the relative risk is 0.5, that means the treatment group is 50% less likely to experience the symptom than the control group; if the relative risk is 2, that means the treatment group is twice as likely to experience the symptom. Read more on the difference between risks and rates.

Diarrhea incidence: The rate ratio of new incidents of diarrhea. The rate ratio is the ratio of the incidence rates in the treatment and control group. Ratios above 1 mean the treatment increased the incidence rate; ratios below 1 mean the treatment decreased the incidence rate. For example, a rate ratio of 3 would imply that the incidence rate was 3 times higher in the treatment group than in the control group. Read more on the difference between incidence and prevalence. Read more on the difference between risks and rates.

Diarrhea prevalence: The prevalence ratio of the population with diarrhea. The prevalence is the proportion of the population experiencing the symptom. Ratios above 1 mean the treatment increased the incidence rate; ratios below 1 mean the treatment decreased the incidence rate. For example, a prevalence ratio of 3 would imply that the prevalence was 3 times higher in the treatment group than in the control group. Read more on the difference between incidence and prevalence. Read more on the difference between risks and rates.

Difficulty breathing: The relative risk of answering “yes” to whether the person experienced difficulty breathing, often a symptom of respiratory illness in the context of cookstoves. The relative risk is a ratio of the probability of the event occurring in the treatment group to the probability of the event occurring in the control group. A higher relative risk means a higher risk of experiencing the symptom. Risks above 1 mean the treatment increased the symptom; risks below 1 mean the treatment decreased the symptom. For example, if the relative risk is 0.5, that means the treatment group is 50% less likely to experience the symptom than the control group; if the relative risk is 2, that means the treatment group is twice as likely to experience the symptom. Read more on the difference between risks and rates.

Dysentery: The rate ratio of new incidents of dysentery. The rate ratio is the ratio of the incidence rates in the treatment and control group. Ratios above 1 mean the treatment increased the incidence rate; ratios below 1 mean the treatment decreased the incidence rate. For example, a rate ratio of 3 would imply that the incidence rate was 3 times higher in the treatment group than in the control group. Read more on the difference between incidence and prevalence. Read more on the difference between risks and rates.

Enrollment rates: Enrollment rates are for school enrollment and given in percentage points.
Excessive nasal secretion: The relative risk of answering “yes” to whether the person experienced excessive nasal secretions (mucus), often a symptom of respiratory illness in the context of cookstoves. The relative risk is a ratio of the probability of the event occurring in the treatment group to the probability of the event occurring in the control group. A higher relative risk means a higher risk of experiencing the symptom. Risks above 1 mean the treatment increased the symptom; risks below 1 mean the treatment decreased the symptom. For example, if the relative risk is 0.5, that means the treatment group is 50% less likely to experience the symptom than the control group; if the relative risk is 2, that means the treatment group is twice as likely to experience the symptom. Read more on the difference between risks and rates.

Height: Height is measured in cm.

Height-for-age: Height-for-age is measured in z-scores. The z-score gives the number of standard deviations that height-for-age falls away from the expected reference point. Z-scores are often used to define undernutrition. The World Health Organization gives a good overview of its clinical use.

Hemoglobin: Hemoglobin is measured in terms of g/dL.

Labor force participation: Labor force participation provides the probability that someone works.

Labor hours: Labor hours represents the number of hours someone works and is measured in hours.

Malaria: The relative risk of developing malaria. The relative risk is a ratio of the probability of the event occurring in the treatment group to the probability of the event occurring in the control group. A higher relative risk means a higher risk of experiencing the outcome. Risks above 1 mean the treatment increased the outcome; risks below 1 mean the treatment decreased the outcome. For example, if the relative risk is 0.5, that means the treatment group is 50% less likely to experience the outcome than the control group; if the relative risk is 2, that means the treatment group is twice as likely to experience the outcome. Read more on the difference between risks and rates.

Malformations: The relative risk of a child being born with malformations. The relative risk is a ratio of the probability of the event occurring in the treatment group to the probability of the event occurring in the control group. A higher relative risk means a higher risk of experiencing the outcome. Risks above 1 mean the treatment increased the outcome; risks below 1 mean the treatment decreased the outcome. For example, if the relative risk is 0.5, that means the treatment group is 50% less likely to experience the outcome than the control group; if the relative risk is 2, that means the treatment group is twice as likely to experience the outcome. Read more on the difference between risks and rates.

Mid-upper arm circumference: Mid-upper arm circumference is a common indicator of undernutrition and is measured in cm.

Neonatal deaths: The relative risk of neonatal deaths (death of a child up to 28 days after birth). The relative risk is a ratio of the probability of the event occurring in the treatment group to the probability of the event occurring in the control group. A higher relative risk means a higher risk of experiencing the outcome. Risks above 1 mean the treatment increased the outcome; risks below 1 mean the treatment decreased the outcome. For example, if the relative risk is 0.5, that means the treatment group is 50% less likely to experience the outcome than the control group; if the relative risk is 2, that means the treatment group is twice as likely to experience the outcome. Read more on the difference between risks and rates.

Pregnancy: Pregnancy represents the probability of becoming pregnant during the study and is measured in percentage points.

Probability of opening business: The probability of opening a business is measured in percentage points.

Profits: Profits are measured in \$1000s of current USD.

Retention rates: Retention rates measure the probability of being held back a year at school and is measured in percentage points.

Savings: Savings are measured in \$1000s of current USD.

Skilled attendant at delivery: Skilled attendant at delivery represents the probability that a pregnant woman will have a skilled attendant at the delivery of her child.

Stillbirths: The relative risk of a child being stillborn. The relative risk is a ratio of the probability of the event occurring in the treatment group to the probability of the event occurring in the control group. A higher relative risk means a higher risk of experiencing the outcome. Risks above 1 mean the treatment increased the outcome; risks below 1 mean the treatment decreased the outcome. For example, if the relative risk is 0.5, that means the treatment group is 50% less likely to experience the outcome than the control group; if the relative risk is 2, that means the treatment group is twice as likely to experience the outcome. Read more on the difference between risks and rates.

Test scores: Test scores are measured in terms of standard deviations. This is important as tests can be on different scales (e.g. a test can be out of 100 or out of 10). While standard deviations are still not perfectly comparable across tests, they are the best measure one can use.

Unpaid work: Unpaid work represents the probability of doing unpaid work.

Weight: Weight is in kg.

Weight-for-age: Weight-for-age is measured in z-scores. The z-score gives the number of standard deviations that weight-for-age falls away from the expected reference point. Z-scores are often used to define undernutrition. The World Health Organization gives a good overview of its clinical use.

Weight-for-height: Weight-for-height is measured in z-scores. The z-score gives the number of standard deviations that weight-for-height falls away from the expected reference point. Z-scores are often used to define undernutrition. The World Health Organization gives a good overview of its clinical use.

### The difference between incidence and prevalence.

Incidence measures the rate of occurrence of new cases of a disease or symptom; prevalence measures the proportion of the population experiencing the disease or symptom.

### The difference between risks and rates.

Risks are measured in terms of proportions of people, e.g. number of people with a disease out of the overall population; rates are measured in events per person-time, e.g. cases per 1000 person-years.

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